2-Dimension Sums: Distinguishers Beyond Three Rounds of RIPEMD-128 and RIPEMD-160
This paper presents differential-based distinguishers against ISO standard hash functions RIPEMD-128 and RIPEMD-160. The compression functions of RIPEMD-128/-160 adopt the double-branch structure, which updates a chaining variable by computing two functions and merging their outputs. Due to the double size of the internal state and difficulties of controlling two functions simultaneously, only few results were published before. In this paper, second-order differential paths are constructed on reduced RIPEMD-128 and -160. This leads to a practical 4-sum attack on 47 steps (out of 64 steps) of RIPEMD-128 and 40 steps (out of 80 steps) of RIPEMD-160.