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In this paper, the authors present 3DLoc: an integrated system of hardware and software toolkits for locating an 802.11-compliant mobile device in a Three Dimensional (3D) space. 3DLoc features two specialized antennas: an azimuth antenna and an elevation antenna, for detecting the azimuth and elevation angles of a mobile device respectively in real time. To improve positioning accuracy in real-world urban settings, the authors propose various signal processing techniques such as clustering and wavelet-transform based denoising, and present theoretical analysis of the accuracy of these techniques.
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