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The Probe Gap Model (PGM) was proposed as a lightweight and fast available bandwidth estimation method. Compared to the Probe Rate Model (PRM) which requires multiple iterations with different probing rates, PGM uses a single probing rate and infers the available bandwidth from the relationship between the input and output rates of probing packet pairs. In this paper, the authors proved that PGM is accurate for multi-hop path under the case of path persistent cross traffic, and even for the one-hop persistent case, they show that PGM can be accurate as long as the input probing rate is set properly. According to their analysis, a bandwidth adaptive method is introduced by adjusting the input probing rate.
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