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Large-scale network systems, such as grid/cloud computing systems, are increasingly expected to be autonomous, scalable, adaptive to dynamic network environments, survivable against partial system failures and simple to implement and maintain. Based on the observation that various biological systems have overcome these requirements, the proposed architecture, SymbioticSphere, applies biological principles and mechanisms to design network systems i.e., application services and middle-ware platforms. SymbioticSphere follows key biological principles such as decentralization, evolution, emergence, diversity and symbiosis. Each application service and middleware platform is modeled as a biological entity, analogous to an individual bee in a bee colony, and implements biological mechanisms such as energy exchange, migration, replication, reproduction and death.
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