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Wireless Underground Sensor Networks (WUSNs) are an emerging type of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), where sensor nodes are located under the ground and communicate through soil. The major challenge in the development of efficient communication protocols for WUSNs is the characterization of the underground channel. So far, none of the existing models consider all the components for electromagnetic signal propagation in the soil medium. In this paper, a closed form channel model is developed based on electromagnetic principles. Accordingly, three major components that influence underground communication are identified: direct, reflected, and lateral waves, the latter being the missing component so far.
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