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Tor is a real-world, circuit-based low-latency anonymous communication network, supporting TCP applications over the Internet. In this paper, the authors present a new class of attacks, protocol-level attacks, against Tor. Different from existing attacks, these attacks can confirm anonymous communication relationships quickly and accurately by manipulating one single cell and pose a serious threat against Tor. In protocol-level attacks, a malicious entry onion router may duplicate, modify, insert, or delete cells of a TCP stream from a sender. The manipulated cells traverse middle onion routers and arrive at an exit onion router along a circuit.
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