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The Sensor Proxy Mobile IPv6 (SPMIPv6) has been designed for IP-based wireless sensor networks mobility to potentially save energy consumption by relieving the sensor nodes from participating in the handoff process. However, SPMIPv6 is dependent on a single and central Local Mobility Anchor (LMA), and thus, it inherited most of the problems observed in the Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) protocol, including long handoff latency, non-optimized communication path, and bottleneck issues. In addition, SPMIPv6 extends the single point of failure to include both the authentication and network information. This paper presents an enhanced architecture for SPMIPv6 called Clustered SPMIPv6 (CSPMIPv6) to overcome the problems above.
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