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Underwater physical medium is a challenging environment for communication using Radio Frequency (RF) or acoustic waves due to strong attenuation, delay, multi-path fading, power and cost limitations. Discovered a century ago, Magneto-Inductive (MI) communication technique stands as a strong alternative paradigm due to its independence of environmental impairments including multi-path fading, dynamic channels and high propagation delays experienced by acoustic waves. Furthermore, MI technique yields networking solutions exploiting low-cost, easily-deployable and flexible antenna structures, and the possibility of forming networks of magnetic waveguides defeat path loss.
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