A Compact Variable-Temperature Broadband Series-Resistor Calibration
The authors present a broadband on-wafer calibration from 45 MHz to 40 GHz for variable temperature measurements, which requires three standards: a thru, reflect, and series resistor. At room temperature, the maximum error of this technique, compared to a benchmark nine-standard multiline Thru-Reflect-Line (TRL) method, is comparable to the repeatability of the benchmark calibration. They show that the model is stable over three weeks, and compare the calibration to the multiline TRL method as a function of time. The approach is then demonstrated at variable temperature, where the model parameters are extracted at 300 K and at variable temperatures down to 20 K, in order to determine their temperature dependence.