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A wireless sensor network typically consists of a large number of low-cost sensor devices with limited battery energy deployed in an unattended manner. Routing and data dissemination are an important issue in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The essential function of a WSN is to monitor a phenomenon in a physical environment and report sensed data to a central node called sink, where additional operations can be applied to the gathered data. Routing techniques in wireless networks are another important research direction for WSNs. Some early routing protocols in WSNs are actually existing routing protocols for wireless ad hoc networks or wireless mobile networks.
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