Date Added: Jul 2012
A cellular network is an asymmetric radio network which is made up of fixed transceivers or nodes, maintain the signal while the mobile transceiver which is using the network is in the vicinity of the node. An ad-hoc network is a Local Area Network (LAN) that is built spontaneously as devices connect. Instead of relying on a base station to coordinate the flow of messages to each node in the network, the individual network nodes forward packets to and from each other. This paper focuses on various issues, architecture and routing protocols in cellular, Ad hoc and sensor networks. As issues proves helpful for forthcoming research, this paper work as a backbone to elaborate the various research areas.