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In low Intermediate Frequency (IF) wireless receivers, such as GPS and Bluetooth systems, complex filters are often required to reject image signal and adjacent interferers. Although the passive complex filter can also reject the image signal, the active complex filter is preferred. The passive one cannot attenuate the adjacent interferers as the active one can do. Besides, the complex filter can provide some gains so as to improve the noise performance. An active-RC solution has been preferred to a lower consumption trans-conductance-C (gm-C) approach to improve linearity and robustness versus interferers. In active-RC filters, the frequency characteristics are determined in the form of RC time constants that might change due to variations of fabrication process, operating temperature, supply voltage and aging.
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