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The design of the seamless handoff is the key issue in the next-generation mobile networks. A new broadband wireless access, called WiMAX has been specified in the IEEE 802.16e standard document, to provide the high bandwidth and the large coverage area than the IEEE 802.11-based wireless networks. In the IP-based mobile network, Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) protocol provides the binding update message to update the mobile station's IP information for supporting the layer 3 mobility. Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) protocol is proposed by employing a hierarchical network structure to reduce handoff latency. HMIPv6 protocol suffers the long handoff delay and the high packet lost in the macro mobility.
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