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Control applications over Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) require timely, reliable, and energy efficient communications. Cross layer interaction is an essential design paradigm to exploit the complex interaction among the layers of the protocol stack and reach a maximum efficiency. Such a design approach is challenging because reliability and latency of delivered packets and energy are at odds, and resource constrained nodes support only simple algorithms. In this paper, the TREnD protocol is introduced for control applications over WSNs in industrial environments. It is a cross-layer protocol that embraces efficiently routing algorithm, MAC, data aggregation, duty cycling, and radio power control.
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