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This paper presents data centers from a Cyber-Physical System (CPS) perspective. Current methods for controlling Information Technology (IT) and Cooling Technology (CT) in data centers are classified according to the degree to which they take into account both cyber and physical considerations. To evaluate the potential impact of coordinated CPS strategies at the data-center level, the authors introduce a control-oriented model that represents the data center as two coupled networks: a computational network representing the cyber dynamics and a thermal network representing the physical dynamics. These networks are coupled through the influence of the IT on both networks: servers affect both the Quality of Service (QoS) delivered by the computational network and the generation of heat in the thermal network.
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