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Clustering is an efficient method adopted in various routing algorithms for wireless sensor networks. In this paper, the authors propose a Density-based Energy-efficient Clustering Algorithm (DECA). In DECA, they define the density of each node and regard it as an important evaluation metric. Together with nodes' residual energy under consideration, each cluster head is selected based on the density of nodes. They design an intra-cluster algorithm as well as a multi-hop inter-cluster routing algorithm. Moreover, they discuss the optimal number of clusters. Simulation results show that cluster heads are evenly distributed and their proposed routing algorithm do consume much less energy than some existed algorithms. The network lifetime is also largely prolonged.
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