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This study was designed to help understand what effective managers really do. Unlike previous research on managerial effectiveness, a diverse sample (N = 78) of managers was directly observed in natural settings. These data on managerial activities gathered by trained observers were related to a subordinate-report measure of unit effectiveness. Using canonical correlation analysis, a descriptive model of managerial effectiveness was derived. This one-dimensional model consists of a continuum ranging from a quantity-oriented human resource manager (who was observed to exhibit considerable staffing and motivating or reinforcing activities and was perceived to have quantity performance in the unit) to quality-oriented traditional manager This empirically derived descriptive model helps identify needed managerial activities and skills for quantity and quality performance in today's organizations.
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