A Distributed Wake-Up Scheduling for Opportunistic Forwarding in Wireless Sensor Networks
In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), sensor nodes are typically subjected to energy constraints and often prone to topology changes. While duty cycling has been widely used for energy conservation in WSNs, random walks have been popular for many delay-tolerant applications in WSNs due to their many inherent desirable properties. In this paper, the authors consider an opportunistic forwarding under an asynchronous and heterogeneous duty cycling. They first show that its resulting packet trajectory can be interpreted as a continuous-time random walk, and then provide an analytical formula for its end-to-end delay.