Date Added: Dec 2011
To provide seamless internet connectivity anywhere at any time to the mobile users, there is a strong demand for the integration of wireless access networks for all-IP based Next Generation Networks (NGNs). To support heterogeneous networking environment, a dual mode user terminal is required to support all access networks which are gathered to build the integrated unified network. Several research proposals build their integrated network on tight coupling mechanism and the treatment of the handover latency was taken as the prime factor. However, because of the flexibility and independence of deployment a loose coupling architecture has been preferred in this research effort.