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The authors propose a formal framework for designing and developing adaptive N-variant programs. The framework supports multiple levels of fault detection, masking, and recovery through reconfiguration. Their approach is two-fold: they introduce an Adaptive Functional Capability Model (AFCM) to define levels of functional capabilities for each service provided by the system. The AFCM specifies how, once a fault is detected, a system shall scale back its functional capabilities while still maintaining essential services. Next, they propose a Multi-layered Assured Architecture Design (MAAD) to implement reconfiguration requirements specified by AFCMs.
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