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In this paper, we study the localization problem in large-scale Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs). Unlike in the terrestrial positioning, the Global Positioning System (GPS) can not work efficiently underwater. The limited bandwidth, the severely impaired channel and the cost of underwater equipment all makes the localization problem very challenging. Most current localization schemes are not well suitable for deep underwater environment. The authors propose a hierarchical localization scheme to address the challenging problems. The new scheme mainly consists of four types of nodes, which are surface buoys, Detachable Elevator Transceivers (DETs), anchor nodes and ordinary nodes.
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