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Low rate attacks, or Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks of the occasional misbehaviour, can throttle the throughput of robust timed-protocols, like the Transmission Control Protocol(TCP), by creating either periodic or exponentially distributed outages, or transmission disruptions. Such attacks are as effective as full-fledged DoS with high undetectability of the misbehaving network entity. In this paper, the authors present a mathematical model of Low-Rate. randomly occurring, Denial-of-Service attacks. By viewing the process as a two-state Continuous-Time Markov Chain (CTMC), they have successfully computed the transition and state probabilities of a compromised network entity that can behave normally, while in the normal state. and abnormally, when in the abnormal state.
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