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Opportunistic routing is widely known to have substantially better performance than traditional unicast routing in wireless networks with lossy links. However, wireless sensor networks are heavily duty-cycled, i.e. they frequently enter deep sleep states to ensure long network life-time. This renders existing opportunistic routing schemes impractical, as they assume that nodes are always awake and can overhear other transmissions. In this paper, the authors introduce a novel opportunistic routing metric that takes duty cycling into account. By analytical performance modeling and simulations, they show that their routing scheme results in significantly reduced delay and improved energy efficiency compared to traditional unicast routing.
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