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This paper presents a modal description of multiport antennas that leads directly to a rigorous network representation and simple quadratic expressions for gain, efficiency, and effective area. The analysis shows that the transmitting and receiving properties of an N element antenna array are exactly described by a 2N?2N element scattering matrix together with a set of N orthonormal mode functions and accounts for effects such as mutual coupling, scattering, reflection, and losses. The approach is quite general, only requiring that the antenna be finite and reciprocal.
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