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In this paper, the authors present an approach for self-adaptation in automotive embedded systems using a hierarchical, multi-layered control approach. They model automotive systems as a set of constraints and define a hierarchy of control loops based on different criteria. Adaptations are performed at first locally on a lower layer of the architecture. If this fails due to the restricted scope of the control cycle, the next higher layer is in charge of finding a suitable adaptation. They compare different options regarding responsibility split in multilayered control in a self-healing scenario with a setup adopted from automotive in-vehicle networks. They show that a multi-layer control approach has clear performance benefits over a central control, even though all layers work on the same set of constraints.
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