A Multi-Mode Multi-Band and Multi-System-Based Access Architecture for High-Speed Railways

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With the rapid development of high-speed railways all over the world, it is very promising to deliver public broadband access to passengers aboard high-speed trains. However, it has been a challenge to support high speed (e.g. above 350 km/h) mobile users with broadband communications, because of rapidly fading radio channels and Doppler frequency shift. This paper presents a review of network architectures providing broadband access to high-speed trains. Moreover, this architecture could support high mobility with broad bandwidth, seamless handover, scalable and cost-effective deployment.