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Several architectures have been recently proposed to support IP mobility. Most studies, however, show that current protocols, in general, fall short from satisfying the performance requirements for audio applications. In this study, the authors propose a multicast-based protocol to reduce latency and packet loss during handoff and provide the base for IP mobility support. They use extensive simulation to evaluate the protocol's performance over a variety of real and generated topologies, and they compare it to several other mobility protocols, especially the Mobile IP protocols. They take handoff delay estimates and routing efficiency as metrics for the comparisons. They take a route analysis (As opposed to packet analysis) approach in the study, and they apply it in the context of wide-area networks.
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