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Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) has been adopted by the IEEE 802.11 standard and provides good performance when all transmitters are within the range of each other. Unfortunately, in multi-hop topologies, the asymmetric view of the channel state leads to a throughput distribution where a few flows may capture all the available bandwidth while many other flows get very low throughput and sometime meet starvation. To address this problem, in this paper the authors describe a solution called Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance by Receiver Detection (CSMA/CARD) which makes use of collisions sensed by a receiver at the physical layer to help the handshake mechanism and mitigate the effect of such problem.
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