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Protocols for Password-based Authenticated Key Exchange (PAKE) allow two users who share only a short, low-entropy password to agree on a cryptographically strong session key. The challenge in designing such protocols is that they must be immune to off-line dictionary attacks in which an eavesdropping adversary exhaustively enumerates the dictionary of likely passwords in an attempt to match a password to the set of observed transcripts. To date, few general frameworks for constructing PAKE protocols in the standard model are known. Here, the authors abstract and generalize a protocol by Jiang and Gong to give a new methodology for realizing PAKE without random oracles, in the common reference string model.
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