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Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is well-known for its poor performance over wireless networks. The main reason is the unstable condition of wireless networks. Previous attempts to improve TCP performance have been centered on techniques such as queue management, congestion window adjustment, delayed acknowledgement, and etc., because lower layers are hidden in the layered Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. With cross layer techniques, more precise data can be retrieved from lower layers for network condition estimation. In this paper, the authors analyze and model the factors that affect the TCP throughput in the lower layers.
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