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In all optical networks, signals has to travel over long distances and Physical Layer Impairments (PLI) accumulate as regeneration capability is not available. During transmission, Quality of Service (QoS) of signals as measured by their Bit Error Rates (BER) is degraded due to propagation in the fibers, amplifier noise, and crosstalk between channels arising from the switches and de-multiplexers which cannot be removed at the physical layer. It is possible to mitigate physical layer effects at the network layer using appropriate QoS aware Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA) algorithms.
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