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User authentication is one of the fundamental procedures to ensure secure communications and share system resources over an insecure public network channel. Thus, a simple and efficient authentication mechanism is required for securing the network system in the real environment. In general, the password-based authentication mechanism provides the basic capability to prevent unauthorized access. Especially, the purpose of the one-time password is to make it more difficult to gain unauthorized access to restricted resources. Instead of using the password file as conventional authentication systems, many researchers have devoted to implement various one-time password schemes using smart cards, time-synchronized token or short message service in order to reduce the risk of tampering and maintenance cost.
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