A Public Shuffle without Private Permutations
In TCC 2007, Adida and Wikstrom proposed a novel approach to shuffle, called a public shuffle, in which a shuffler can perform shuffle publicly without needing information kept secret. Their scheme uses an encrypted permutation matrix to shuffle ciphertexts publicly. This approach significantly reduces the cost of constructing a mix-net to verifiable joint decryption. Though their method is successful in making shuffle to be a public operation, their scheme still requires that some trusted parties should choose a permutation to be encrypted and construct zero-knowledge proofs on the well-formedness of this permutation.