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In IEEE 802.11, multicast protocol is based on the basic access procedure of Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA). This protocol does not provide any recovery mechanism for multicast frames. As a result, transmitted multicast frames may be lost due to collisions or errors. Recently, several reliable multicast protocols at MAC layer have been proposed for 802.11. They can be classified into two categories: one is based on Negative FeedBack (NFB-based) and the other is based on Positive FeedBack (PFB-based).
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