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Sensor networks are highly distributed networks of small, lightweight wireless sensor nodes, deployed in large numbers to monitor the environment or system by the measurement of physical parameters such as temperature, pressure, or relative humidity, sound, vibration, motion or pollutants, at different locations. A WSN is composed of a large number of low-cost Sensor Nodes (SNs) and one or several Base Stations (BS) or destination nodes. SNs are typically small wireless devices with limited computational power, equipped with a radio transceiver or other wireless communications device, radio transmission range, storage size, a small microcontroller, battery power. Sink nodes or destination nodes are distinguishing devices with powerful computation capacity, large memory size, high power energy and long communication range so as to collect data from SNs.
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