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Existing approaches to indoor tracking have various limitations. Location-fingerprinting approaches are labor intensive and vulnerable to environmental changes. Trilateration approaches require at least three Line-of-Sight beacons for coverage at any point in the service area, which results in heavy infrastructure cost. Dead Reckoning (DR) approaches rely on knowledge of the initial location and suffer from tracking error accumulation. Despite this, the authors adopt DR for location tracking because of the recent emergence of affordable hand-held devices equipped with low cost DR-enabling sensors. In this paper, they propose an indoor pedestrian tracking system which comprises of a DR sub-system implemented on a mobile phone and a ranging sub-system with a sparse infrastructure.
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