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An attacker who can control arbitrarily many user identities can break the security properties of most conceivable systems. This is called a "Sybil attack". This paper presents a solution to this problem that does not require online communication with a trusted third party and that in addition preserves the privacy of honest users. Given an initial so-called Sybil-free identity domain, the proposal can be used for deriving Sybilfree unlinkable pseudonyms associated with other identity domains. The pseudonyms are self-certified and computed by the users themselves from their cryptographic long-term identities.
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