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A semi-blind beamformer using a parallel pilot signal in the adaptive algorithm is investigated for Wideband Code-Division Multiple-Access (WCDMA) systems. Although the pilot signal and traffic channels are designed to be transmitted using orthogonal codes in the downlink direction, time dispersion and frequency-selective fading in the transmission channel severely degrade this orthogonality at the receiver. As a result, the traffic signal of a target base station appears as interference coming from the same direction as the pilot signal, and causes poor performance of a pilot-only training-based beamformer.
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