A State of Art Concept in Contriving of Underwater Networks
The underwater ocean environment is widely considered as one of the most difficult communications channels. Underwater acoustic networks have recently emerged as a new area of research in wireless networking. Underwater networks are generally formed by acoustically connected ocean-bottom sensors, underwater gateways and a surface station, which provides a link to an on-shore control center. In recent years, there has been substantial work on protocol design for these networks with most efforts focusing on MAC and network layer protocols. Low communication bandwidth, large propagation delay, floating node mobility, and high error probability are the challenges of building mobile Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSN) for aquatic applications.