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The authors present a statistical test for detecting information leaks in systems with continuous outputs. They use continuous mutual information to detect the information leakage from trial runs of a probabilistic system. It has been shown that there is no universal rate of convergence for sampled mutual information, however when the leakage is zero, and under some reasonable conditions, they establish a rate for the sampled estimate, and show that it can converge to zero very quickly. They use this result to develop a statistical test for information leakage, and they use their new test to analyze a number of possible fixes for a time-based information leak in e-passports.
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