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Ad hoc network is infrastructure less. Each individual node in an ad hoc network must be capable of acting as a host and as a router. The benefits of ad hoc architecture leads to self-reconfiguration and adaptability to highly variable mobile characteristics such as power and transmission conditions, traffic distributions, and load balancing. These benefits come at a cost. Randomness of network topology due to node mobility in ad hoc networks create new challenges, which, together with the local broadcast capability, causes a set of apprehensions relating to medium access control protocol issues, routing and forwarding issues, transport protocol issues and security issues.
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