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Video conferencing applications require high bandwidth to distribute video chunks. In general, video chunks distribution can be done through two approaches: a centralized network or an overlay network. However, the centralized network is expensive and not scalable. Therefore, many systems have resorted to the use of overlay network, which offers low cost and scalable systems by utilizing the resources of the node better. The current paper presents the two approaches for the video conferencing system, focusing on the systems that use the overlay network approach. It describes the challenges and solutions for distributing video chunks across different types of overlay networks centering on application layer multicast and Peer-To-Peer (P2P) network.
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