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Implementing public-key cryptography on passive RFID tags is very challenging due to the limited die size and power available. Typical public-key algorithms require complex logical components such as modular exponentiation in RSA. The authors demonstrate the feasibility of implementing public-key encryption on low-power, low cost passive RFID tags to large-scale private identification. They use Oded Regev's Learning-With-Error (LWE) cryptosystem, which is provably secure under the hardness assumption of classic lattice problems. The advantage of using the LWEcryptosystem is its intrinsic computational simplicity (the main operation is modular addition). They leverage the low speed of RFID application by using circuit design with supply Voltage close to transistor threshold (Vt) to lower power.
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