Date Added: Mar 2011
Traditionally, the development of computing systems has been focused on performance improvements driven by the demand of applications from consumer, scientific, and business domains. However, the ever-increasing energy consumption of computing systems has started to limit further performance growth due to overwhelming electricity bills and carbon dioxide footprints. Therefore, the goal of the computer system design has been shifted to power and energy efficiency. To identify open challenges in the area and facilitate future advancements, it is essential to synthesize and classify the research on power- and energy-efficient design conducted to date.