A Two-Tiered Reliable Application Layer Multicast
This paper presents a two-tiered reliable Application Layer Multicast (ALM) solution, called HRALM, to provide lossless ALM services. HRALM builds a domain-based multicast tree, and divides the members into two transport planes (i.e., Plane 1 and Plane 2) in terms of the tree. In any domain, the distance between each member and the domain header is below a given threshold, which improves the capability of topology-awareness. According to the loss detected by members in different planes, HRALM adopts different but correlated recovery solutions.