A Vascular-Network-Based Nonuniform Hierarchical Fault-Tolerant Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks
Fault tolerance is the key technology in wireless sensor networks which attracts many research interests. Aiming at the issue that the nodes' failures affect the network's stability and service quality, a vascular-network-based fault-tolerant routing algorithm is presented by non-uniform hierarchical clustering. According to the distribution characteristics of the vascular network and inspirations to the fault tolerance for wireless sensor networks, a mathematical model and network topology are, respectively, established. It applies the Improved Particle Swarm Optimization (IPSO) to the non-uniform hierarchical clustering, and multipaths are established between the neighbor hierarchical nodes based on the Best-Worst Ant System (BWAS). It introduces the normalized values of the pheromone generated by the ants as the selection probabilities of transmitting paths to establish the hierarchical routing.