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Diversity is one of the most common solutions to fading channels in wireless communications: the same information is sent over multiple, independently faded channels, improving the probability of error-free detection. One of the possible implementations consists of building multiple physical paths between transmitter and receiver by means of conveniently spaced antenna arrays. It has been shown, that this approach improves both the diversity order and the multiplexing capabilities of the system. Despite their well-known benefits, Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) transmission techniques are not widely deployed in wireless mobile systems due to the incompatibility between terminal small dimensions and constraints on minimum antenna distances.
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