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Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) communication systems are well known for providing high data rates through exploiting the spatial dimension of the medium. Compared to Single Input Single Output (SISO) systems, MIMO systems achieve higher data rates for the same signal-to-noise ratio, or equivalently, spend less energy for achieving the same data rate. However, MIMO systems are not used in practice as a means to reduce transmit energy and hence power consumption, because the required MIMO circuitry renders them power-hungry. As a matter of fact, such systems require multiple transmitter/receiver chains, which mean multiple low-noise amplifiers, filters, mixers, analog-to-digital converters, etc.
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