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Meeting a high bitrate requirement (say, 1 Mbps) in overlay live streaming is challenging. The authors consider the design and optimization of an overlay network formed by distributed proxies for high-bitrate live streaming. The video stream is divided into sub-streams and pushed via multiple trees to all the proxy servers with users. To effectively overcome bandwidth bottlenecks, they employ proxy helpers to provide rich path diversity. They do not have any attached users, and hence may forward any arbitrary subset of the sub-streams. In this way, the helpers serve as "Stepping stones" to provide full streams to the servers.
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