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A significant proportion of link bandwidth measurement methods are based on IP's ability to control the number of hops a packet can traverse along a route via the Time-To-Live (TTL) field of the IP header. A new delay variation based path model is introduced and used to analyze the fundamental networking effects underlying these methods. Insight from the model allows new link estimation methods to be derived and analyzed. A new method family based on packet quartets: a combination of two packet pairs each comprising a probe following a pacesetter packet, where the TTL of the pacesetter is limited and the end-to-end delay variation of the probes is measured, is introduced.
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